Call the office or if after hours go to the emergency room. The inability to urinate soon after bladder surgery is not something to worry about though if not dealt with quickly can be become quite uncomfortable. Usually it occurs due to some peri-urethral inflammation. Another cause is pain. Being able to urinate is dependent on being able to relax the pelvic muscles. If an increase in pain is noted secondary to over-exertion or a variety other potential causes, urinary retention may result.